WDA Consultants Inc. - Large Scale Groundwater Systems and CO<SUB>2</SUB> Storage
LARGE SCALE
GROUNDWATER FLOW SYSTEMS
AND CO2 STORAGE

... need is there for the investigation of large scale groundwater flow systems with respect to CO2 storage?
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is seen as the means to facilitate the shift from petroleum and coal-based energy to systems with no or greatly reduced CO2 output. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2005) made CCS the apparent method of choice to help reduce the rate of climate change while shifting to alternate energy sources. Presently there is a need to improve significantly on the concepts and physics used by IPCC (2005) for the planned injection and storage of CO2. Of particular importance is knowledge with respect to the extent and depth of groundwater flow systems. WDAs work has shown that the direction of CO2 migration (as gas, supercritical fluid, or dissolved in saline aquifers) is determined in dependence upon force fields in groundwater flow systems. These and other conceptual and calculation changes for CO2 storage are summarized in www.wda-consultants.com/co2-main.htm.
... are such investigations required?
The new knowledge requires the understanding of groundwater flow systems, particularly the recharge and movements of deeper circulating groundwater on a regional scale. Skills and experience needed are geophysical interpretation and tectonic analysis, drilling and completion of deep wells, as well as field studies, remotely sensed data interpretation with respect to the distribution of recharge and discharge areas and computer modeling of regional groundwater flow.
... can WDA help in these investigations?
Personnel of WDA have been involved in regional groundwater flow studies in the semi-arid Canadian sub-Arctic, and in regions of North Africa, France and Germany. As early as 1972, Dr. Weyer studied the regional distribution of recharge and discharge areas in India using satellite imagery. We are experienced with groundwater recharge in desert regions (Kuwait and Oman). We have installed monitoring wells for deep groundwater flow at several locations.

We will:
  Execute holistic investigations of both regional surface and groundwater systems within catchment basins through the use of available data, remote sensing imagery and field installation of monitoring networks
  build-up data banks for existing and new data, applying modern GIS-techniques
  determine recharge mechanisms and amount in desert countries with so-called 'fossil' groundwater
  oversee and coordinate all baseline studies for climate, soil, surface water and groundwater
  prepare comprehensive and conclusive reports about all findings




WDA has experienced personnel to assist your company in instituting these measures in a quality oriented, timely and cost effective manner